ISCARIOT Judas

ISCARIOT Judas[1]

Male - Yes, date unknown

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  • Name ISCARIOT Judas 
    Gender Male 
    _UID 0EF2ED17EDC8784E90EB6053F7E00A109EBD 
    Died Yes, date unknown 
    Buried Jerusalem, Judaea, Roman Empire Find all individuals with events at this location  [2
    Address:
    Akeldama, near the Valley of Hinnom 
    Notes 
    • Personal name meaning, he shall be praised. The last of the 12 named apostles was Judas Iscariot. All of the Gospels place him at the end of the list of disciples because of his role as betrayer. Iscariot is an Aramaic word which means man of Kerioth, a town near Hebron. He was the only disciple from Judea.
      He acted as treasurer for the disciples but was known as a miser and a thief (John 12:5-6). He was present at the Last Supper, during which Jesus predicted his betrayal (Luke 22:21; Matt 26:20-21). The price of the betrayal was 30 pieces of silver, which Judas returned to Jewish leaders; then he went out and hanged himself. He died in sorrow but without repentance. The money, which could not be returned to the treasury because it was blood money, was used to buy a potter’s field in Judas’ name (Matt 27:3-10; Acts 1:18-19).

      judas iscariot (21)

      Matt 10:4, Matt 26:14, Matt 26:25, Matt 26:47, Matt 27:3, Mark 3:19, Mark 14:10, Mark 14:43, Luke 6:16, Luke 22:3, Luke 22:47, John 6:71, John 12:4, John 13:2, John 13:26, John 13:29, John 18:2, John 18:3, John 18:5, Acts 1:16, Acts 1:25

      Role as an apostle

      Calling of the Apostles (1481) by Domenico Ghirlandaio
      One of the best-attested and most reliable statements made by Jesus in the gospels comes from the Gospel of Matthew 19:28, in which Jesus tells his apostles: "in the new world, when the Son of Man shall sit on his glorious throne, you will also sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel." New Testament scholar Bart D. Ehrman concludes, "This is not a tradition that was likely to have been made up by a Christian later, after Jesus's death—since one of these twelve had abandoned his cause and betrayed him. No one thought that Judas Iscariot would be seated on a glorious throne in the Kingdom of God. That saying, therefore appears to go back to Jesus, and indicates, then, that he had twelve close disciples, whom he predicted would reign in the coming Kingdom."

      Although the canonical gospels frequently disagree on the names of some of the minor apostles, all four of them list Judas Iscariot as one of them. The Synoptic Gospels state that Jesus sent out "the twelve" (including Judas) with power over unclean spirits and with a ministry of preaching and healing: Judas clearly played an active part in this apostolic ministry alongside the other eleven. However, in John's Gospel, Judas's outlook was differentiated - many of Jesus' disciples abandoned him because of the difficulty of accepting his teachings, and Jesus asked the twelve if they would also leave him. Simon Peter spoke for the twelve: "Lord, to whom shall we go? You have the words of eternal life," but Jesus observed then that although Judas was one of the twelve whom he had chosen, he was "a devil."

      Matthew directly states that Judas betrayed Jesus for a bribe of "thirty pieces of silver" by identifying him with a kiss – "the kiss of Judas" – to arresting soldiers of the High Priest Caiaphas, who then turned Jesus over to Pontius Pilate's soldiers.

      Mark's Gospel states that the chief priests were looking for a way to arrest Jesus. They decided not to do so during the feast [of the Passover], since they were afraid that people would riot; instead, they chose the night before the feast to arrest him. According to Luke's account, Satan entered Judas at this time.

      According to the account in the Gospel of John, Judas carried the disciples' money bag or box (Greek: ???????????, gl?ssokomon), but John's Gospel makes no mention of the thirty pieces of silver as a fee for betrayal. The evangelist comments in John 12:5–6 that Judas spoke fine words about giving money to the poor, but the reality was "not that he cared for the poor, but [that] he was a thief, and had the money box; and he used to take what was put in it." However, in John 13:27–30, when Judas left the gathering of Jesus and his disciples with betrayal in mind, some [of the disciples] thought that Judas might have been leaving to buy supplies or on a charitable errand.

      Ehrman argues that Judas's betrayal "is about as historically certain as anything else in the tradition",[2] pointing out that the betrayal is independently attested in the Gospel of Mark, in the Gospel of John, and in the Book of Acts.[2] Ehrman also contends that it is highly unlikely that early Christians would have made the story of Judas's betrayal up, since it reflects poorly on Jesus's judgement in choosing him as an apostle.[2] Nonetheless, Ehrman argues that what Judas actually told the authorities was not Jesus's location, but rather Jesus's secret teaching that he was the Messiah.[2] This, he holds, explains why the authorities did not try to arrest Jesus prior to Judas's betrayal.[2] John P. Meier sums up the historical consensus, stating, "We only know two basic facts about [Judas]: (1) Jesus chose him as one of the Twelve, and (2) he handed over Jesus to the Jerusalem authorities, thus precipitating Jesus' execution."

      Death

      Many different accounts of Judas' death have survived from antiquity, both within and outside the New Testament. Matthew 27:1–10 states that, after learning that Jesus was to be crucified, Judas was overcome by remorse and attempted to return the 30 pieces of silver to the priests, but they would not accept them because they were blood money, so he threw them on the ground and left. Afterwards, he committed suicide by hanging himself. The priests used the money to buy a potter's field, which became known as "the Field of Blood" because it had been bought with blood money. Acts 1:18 states that Judas used the money to buy a field, and "[fell] headlong... burst asunder in the midst, and all his bowels gushed out." The field became known as Akeldama, which means "the Field of Blood" in Aramaic, because it was covered in Judas's blood, and it was used to bury strangers. In this account, Judas' death is apparently by accident and he shows no signs of remorse.

      The early Church Father Papias of Hierapolis (c. 60–130 AD) recorded in his Expositions of the Sayings of the Lord, which was probably written during the first decade of the second century AD, that Judas was afflicted by God's wrath; his body became so enormously bloated that he could not pass through a street with buildings on either side. His face became so swelled up that a doctor could not even identify the location of his eyes using an optical instrument. Judas' genitals became enormously swollen and oozed with pus and worms. Finally, he killed himself on his own land by pouring out his innards onto the ground, which stank so horribly that, even in Papias' own time a century later, people still could not pass the site without holding their noses. This story was well-known among Christians in antiquity and was often told in competition with the two conflicting stories from the New Testament.

      According to the apocryphal Gospel of Nicodemus, which was probably written in the fourth century AD, Judas was overcome with remorse and went home to tell his wife, who was roasting a chicken on a spit over a charcoal fire, that he was going to kill himself, because he knew Jesus would rise from the dead and, when he did, he would punish him. Judas's wife laughed and told him that Jesus could no more rise from the dead than he could resurrect the chicken she was cooking. Immediately, the chicken was restored to life and began to crow. Judas then ran away and hanged himself. In the apocryphal Gospel of Judas, Judas has a vision of the disciples stoning and persecuting him.

      The obvious discrepancy between the two radically different accounts of Judas's death in Matthew 27:1–10 and Acts 1:18 has proven to be a serious challenge to those who support the idea of Biblical inerrancy. This problem was one of the points leading C. S. Lewis, for example, to reject the view "that every statement in Scripture must be historical truth". Nonetheless, various attempts at harmonization have been suggested. Generally they have followed literal interpretations such as that of Augustine of Hippo, which suggest that these simply describe different aspects of the same event – that Judas hanged himself in the field, and the rope eventually snapped and the fall burst his body open, or that the accounts of Acts and Matthew refer to two different transactions. Some have taken the descriptions as figurative: that the "falling prostrate" was Judas in anguish, [a] and the "bursting out of the bowels" is pouring out emotion.[b]

      Modern scholars reject these approaches. Arie W. Zwiep states that "neither story was meant to be read in light of the other" and that "the integrity of both stories as complete narratives in themselves is seriously disrespected when the two separate stories are being conflated into a third, harmonized version." David A. Reed argues that the Matthew account is a midrashic exposition that allows the author to present the event as a fulfillment of prophetic passages from the Old Testament. They argue that the author adds imaginative details such as the thirty pieces of silver, and the fact that Judas hangs himself, to an earlier tradition about Judas's death.

      Matthew's description of the death as fulfilment of a prophecy "spoken through Jeremiah the prophet" has caused difficulties, since it does not clearly correspond to any known version of the Book of Jeremiah but does appear to refer to a story from the Book of Zechariah which describes the return of a payment of thirty pieces of silver. Even writers such as Jerome and John Calvin concluded that this was obviously an error.[c] Modern scholars however have usually explained apparent discrepancies of this sort as arising from a Jewish practice of citing the Major Prophet in a scroll group to refer to the whole content of the scroll group, including books written by minor prophets placed in the grouping.

      More recently, scholars have suggested that the Gospel writer may also have had a passage from Jeremiah in mind, such as chapters 18:1–4 and 19:1–13 which refer to a potter's jar and a burial place, and chapter 32:6–15 which refers to a burial place and an earthenware jar. Raymond Brown suggested, "the most plausible [explanation] is that Matthew 27:9–10 is presenting a mixed citation with words taken both from Zechariah and Jeremiah, and ... he refers to that combination by one name. Jeremiah 18–9 concerns a potter (18:2–; 19:1), a purchase (19:1), the Valley of Hinnom (where the Field of Blood is traditionally located, 19:2), 'innocent blood' (19:4), and the renaming of a place for burial (19:6, 11); and Jer 32:6–5 tells of the purchase of a field with silver." Randel Helms gives this as an example of the 'fictional and imaginative' use by early Christians of the Old Testament: "Matthew's source has blended Jeremiah's buying of a field and placing the deed in a pot with Zechariah's casting of 30 pieces of silver down in the temple and the purchase of the Potter's Field."
    Person ID I3260  z-Bible Genealogy
    Last Modified 28 Jul 2019 

    Father APOSTLES,   d. Yes, date unknown 
    Family ID F1400  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Photos
    Judas Iscariot
    Judas Iscariot

    Judas Iscariot
    by James Tissot (between 1886 and 1894)
    opaque watercolor over graphite on gray wove paper
    Brooklyn Museum, NY



  • Sources 
    1. [S1] Wikipedia, Judas Iscariot.

    2. [S1] Wikipedia, Apostles.