1st King of Judah REHOBOAM

1st King of Judah REHOBOAM

Male 1015 BC - 957 BC

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  • Name REHOBOAM  
    Prefix 1st King of Judah 
    Born 1015 BC 
    Gender Male 
    _UID F124B57AF7A14946A3E30A25CE306D36C12D 
    Died 957 BC 
    Buried Jerusalem, Judaea, Roman Empire Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Notes 
    • Personal name meaning, a people has enlarged. One of Solomon’s sons and his successor to the throne of the united monarchy (1 Kin 11:43). He reigned about 975-957 B.C. While at Shechem for his crowning ceremony as king over Israel (1 Kin 12), the people asked Rehoboam if he would remove some of the tax burden and labor laws which his father had placed on them. Instead of taking the advice of the older men, he acted on the counsel of those who wanted to increase further the burden. The northern tribes revolted and made the rebel Jeroboam their king. Rehoboam was left with only the tribes of Judah and Benjamin. He continued the pagan ways which Solomon had allowed (1 Kin 14:21-24) and fought against Jeroboam and Shishak of Egypt. Some of his fortifications may be those at Lachish and Azekah.

      Rehoboam was 41 years old when he became King of Judah and he reigned 17 years (1 Kin 14:21). He had 18 wives, 60 concubines, 28 sons and 60 daughters.

      rehoboam (50)

      1 Kin 11:43, 1 Kin 12:1, 1 Kin 12:3, 1 Kin 12:6, 1 Kin 12:12, 1 Kin 12:17-18 (3), 1 Kin 12:21 (2), 1 Kin 12:23, 1 Kin 12:27 (2), 1 Kin 14:21 (2), 1 Kin 14:25, 1 Kin 14:27, 1 Kin 14:29-31 (3), 1 Kin 15:6, 1 Chr 3:10, 2 Chr 9:31, 2 Chr 10:1, 2 Chr 10:3, 2 Chr 10:6, 2 Chr 10:12-13 (2), 2 Chr 10:17-18 (3), 2 Chr 11:1 (2), 2 Chr 11:3, 2 Chr 11:5, 2 Chr 11:17-18 (2), 2 Chr 11:21-22 (2), 2 Chr 12:1-2 (2), 2 Chr 12:5, 2 Chr 12:10, 2 Chr 12:13 (2), 2 Chr 12:15-16 (3), 2 Chr 13:7 (2)

      Biblical background

      The Arrogance of Rehoboam, drawing by Hans Holbein the Younger
      According to the Jewish Encyclopaedia, "Solomon's wisdom and power were not sufficient to prevent the rebellion of several of his border cities. Damascus under Rezon secured its independence [from] Solomon; and Jeroboam, a superintendent of works, his ambition stirred by the words of the prophet Ahijah (1 Kings 11:29-40), fled to Egypt. Thus before the death of Solomon the apparently unified kingdom of David began to disintegrate. With Damascus independent and a powerful man of Ephraim, the most prominent of the Ten Tribes, awaiting his opportunity, the future of Solomon's kingdom became dubious".[1]

      According to 1 Kings 11:1-13, Solomon had broken the mandate of the Torah[2] by marrying foreign wives and being influenced by them, worshipping and building shrines to the Moabite and Ammonite gods.

      So the Lord became angry with Solomon, because his heart had turned from the Lord God of Israel ... Therefore the Lord said to Solomon, "Because you have done this, and have not kept My covenant and My statutes, which I have commanded you, I will surely tear the kingdom away from you and give it to your servant. Nevertheless I will not do it in your days, for the sake of your father David; I will tear it out of the hand of your son."

      —?1 Kings 11:1-13
      Rehoboam's mother, Naamah, was an Ammonitess, and thus one of the foreign wives whom Solomon married.[3] In the Revised Version she is referred to as "the Ammonitess". [4]

      Biblical narrative
      Conventional biblical chronology dates the start of Rehoboam's reign to the mid-10th century BC. His reign is described in 1 Kings 12 and 14:21-31 and in 2 Chronicles 10-12 in the Hebrew Bible. Rehoboam was 41 years old when he ascended the throne.[1]


      The United Kingdom of Solomon breaks up, with Jeroboam ruling over the Northern Kingdom of Israel (in green on the map).
      The assembly for the coronation of Solomon's successor, Rehoboam, was called at Shechem, the one sacredly historic city within the territory of the Ten Tribes. Before the coronation took place the assembly requested certain reforms in the policy followed by Rehoboam's father, Solomon. The reforms requested would materially reduce the royal exchequer and hence its power to continue the magnificence of Solomon's court.[1] The older men counseled Rehoboam at least to speak to the people in a civil manner (it is not clear whether they counseled him to accept the demands). However, the new king sought the advice from the young men he had grown up with, who advised the king to show no weakness to the people, and to tax them even more, which Rehoboam did. He proclaimed to the people,

      Whereas my father laid upon you a heavy yoke, so shall I add tenfold thereto. Whereas my father chastised (tortured) you with whips, so shall I chastise you with scorpions. For my littlest finger is thicker than my father's loins; and your backs, which bent like reeds at my father's touch, shall break like straws at my own touch.[5]

      Although the ostensible reason was the heavy burden laid upon Israel because of Solomon's great outlay for buildings and for luxury of all kinds, the other reasons include the historical opposition between the north and the south. The two sections had acted independently until David, by his victories, succeeded in uniting all the tribes, though the Ephraimitic jealousy was ever ready to develop into open revolt. Religious considerations were also operative. The building of the Temple was a severe blow for the various sanctuaries scattered through the land, and the priests of the high places probably supported the revolt. Josephus (Ant., VIII., viii. 3) has the rebels exclaim: "We leave to Rehoboam the Temple his father built."[6]

      Jeroboam and the people rebelled, with the ten northern tribes breaking away and forming a separate kingdom. The new breakaway kingdom continued to be called Kingdom of Israel, and was also known as Samaria, or Ephraim or the northern Kingdom. The realm Rehoboam was left with was called Kingdom of Judah.[5]

      Rulers of Judah
      Saul David Solomon Rehoboam Abijah Asa Jehoshaphat Jehoram Ahaziah Athaliah J(eh)oash Amaziah Uzziah/Azariah Jotham Ahaz Hezekiah Manasseh Amon Josiah Jehoahaz Jehoiakim Jeconiah/Jehoiachin Zedekiah
      vte
      During Rehoboam's 17-year reign,[7] he retained Jerusalem as Judah's capital but

      Judah did what was evil in the sight of the Lord, and they provoked him to jealousy with their sins which they committed, more than all that their fathers had done. For they also built for themselves high places, and pillars, and Ashe?rim on every high hill and under every green tree; and there were also male cult prostitutes in the land. They did according to all the abominations of the nations which the Lord drove out before the people of Israel.

      —?1 Kings 14:22-24
      Civil war
      Rehoboam went to war against the new Kingdom of Israel with a force of 180,000 soldiers. However, he was advised against fighting his brethren, and so returned to Jerusalem.[8] The narrative reports that Israel and Judah were in a state of war throughout his 17-year reign.[9]

      Egyptian invasion

      The Bubastite Portal at Karnak, showing cartouches of Sheshonq I mentioning the invasion from the Egyptian perspective.
      In the fifth year of Rehoboam's reign, Shishak, king of Egypt, brought a huge army and took many cities. According to Joshua, son of Nadav, the mention in 2 Chronicles 11, 6 sqq., that Rehoboam built fifteen fortified cities, indicates that the attack was not unexpected.[6] The account in Chronicles states that Shishaq marched with 1,200 chariots, 60,000 horsemen and troops who came with him from Egypt: Libyans, Sukkites, and Kushites.[10] Shishaq's armies captured all of the fortified towns leading to Jerusalem between Gezer and Gibeon. When they laid siege to Jerusalem, Rehoboam gave Shishaq all of the treasures out of the temple as a tribute. The Egyptian campaign cut off trade with south Arabia via Elath and the Negev that had been established during Solomon's reign.[11] Judah became a vassal state of Egypt.

      Succession
      Rehoboam had 18 wives and 60 concubines. They bore him 28 sons and 60 daughters. His wives included Mahalath, the daughter of Jerimoth the son of David, and Abihail, the daughter of Eliab the son of Jesse. His sons with Mahalath were Jeush, Shemariah, and Zaham. After Mahalath he married his cousin Maacah, daughter of Absalom, David's son. His sons with Maacah were Abijah, Attai, Ziza, and Shelomith.[12] The names of his other wives, sons and all his daughters are not given.

      Rehoboam reigned for 17 years.[5][13] When he died he was buried beside his ancestors in Jerusalem. He was succeeded by his son Abijah.[14]

      Rabbinic literature
      The fact that Rehoboam, the son of King Solomon, was born of an Ammonite woman (I Kings, xiv. 21-31) also made it difficult to maintain the Messianic claims of the house of David; but it was adduced as an illustration of divine Providence which selected the "two doves," Ruth, the Moabite, and Naamah, the Ammonitess, for honorable distinction (B. ?. 38b).[15] Naamah An Ammonitess; one of Solomon's wives and mother of Rehoboam (I Kings xiv. 21, 31; II Chron. xii. 13). In the second Greek account (I Kings xii. 24) Naamah is said to have been the daughter of Hanun (???), son of Nahash, a king of Ammon (II Sam. x. 1-4). Naamah is praised, in B. ?. 38b, for her righteousness, on account of which Moses had previously been warned by God not to make war upon the Ammonites (comp. Deut. ii. 19), as Naamah was to descend from them.[16]

      Rehoboam was the son of an Ammonite woman; and when David praised God because it was permissible to marry Ammonites and Moabites, he held the child upon his knees, giving thanks for himself as well as for Rehoboam, since this permission was of advantage to them both (Yeb. 77a). Rehoboam was stricken with a running sore as a punishment for the curse which David had invoked upon Joab (II Sam. iii. 29) when he prayed that Joab's house might forever be afflicted with leprosy and running sores (Sanh. 48b). All the treasures which Israel had brought from Egypt were kept until the Egyptian king Shishak (I Kings xiv. 25, 26) took them from Rehoboam (Pes. 119a).[17]

      Biblical chronology
      Using the information in Kings and Chronicles, Edwin Thiele has calculated the date for the division of the kingdom is 931–930 BC. Thiele noticed that for the first seven kings of Israel (ignoring Zimri's inconsequential seven-day reign), the synchronisms to Judean kings fell progressively behind by one year for each king. Thiele saw this as evidence that the northern kingdom was measuring the years by a non-accession system (first partial year of reign was counted as year one), whereas the southern kingdom was using the accession method (it was counted as year zero). Once this was understood, the various reign lengths and cross-synchronisms for these kings was worked out, and the sum of reigns for both kingdoms produced 931/930 BC for the division of the kingdom when working backwards from the Battle of Qarqar in 853 BC. According to newer chronologists such as Gershon Galil and Kenneth Kitchen, however, the values are 931 BC for the beginning of the coregency and 915/914 BC for Rehoboam's death.

      One episode which the Bible places during the reign of Rehoboam, and which is confirmed by the records from the Bubastite Portal in Karnak and other archaeological find (without the specific mention of the name Rehoboam), is the Egyptian invasion of Judea by the Egyptian pharaoh Shoshenq I, who is identified by many with the biblical King Shishak. One of the most difficult issues in identifying Shishak with Shoshenq I is the biblical statement that "King Shishak of Egypt attacked Jerusalem. He seized the treasures of the Lord's temple and the royal palace" (1 Kings 14:25-26), making this Shoshenq's biggest prize, whereas the Bubastite Portal lists do not include Jerusalem or any city from central Judea among the surviving names in the list of Shoshenq's conquests.[18]

      References
      1. "Rehoboam". Jewish Encyclopedia. 1906. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
      2. Deuteronomy 7:3
      3. 1 Kings 14:21
      4. 1 Kings 14:21, English Revised Version
      5. Geikie, Cunningham. Hours with the Bible: From Rehoboam to Hezekiah, John B. Alden, New York, 1887
      6. Kittle, R., "Rehoboam", The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Vol. IX: Petri - Reuchlin, Samuel Macauley Jackson (ed.), Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1953
      7. 1 Kings 14:21
      8. 1 Kings 12:22-24, 2 Chronicles 11:2-4
      9. 2 Chronicles 12:15
      10. ""Relief and Stelae of Pharaoh Shoshenq I: Rehoboam's Tribute, c. 925 BCE", The center for Online Judaic Studies".
      11. Aharoni, Yohanan. The Land of the Bible: A Historical Geography, Chap. IV, Westminster John Knox Press, Philadelphis, Pennsylvania, 1979
      12. 2 Chronicles 12:18-21
      13. 1 Kings 14:21
      14. 2 Chronicles 12:16
      15. Jewish enclopedia ammon-ammonites This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
      16. Jewish encyclopedia Naamah This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
      17. Jewish encyclopedia Rehboam This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
      18. de Mieroop, Marc Van (2007). A History of Ancient Egypt. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. p. 400. ISBN 9781405160711.
    Person ID I62  z-Bible Genealogy
    Last Modified 26 Jul 2019 

    Father 3rd King of Israel SOLOMON,   b. 1040 BC, Jerusalem, Judaea, Roman Empire Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 975 BC 
    Mother NAAMAH,   b. 1035 BC,   d. 975 BC 
    Family ID F85  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 1 MAHALATH,   b. 1015 BC,   d. 945 BC 
    Last Modified 29 Jul 2019 
    Family ID F88  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 2 MICHAIAH,   b. 1013 BC,   d. 942 BC 
    Children 
     1. 2nd King of Judah ABIJAH,   b. 993 BC,   d. 954 BC
     2. ATTAI,   b. 992 BC,   d. 922 BC
     3. ZIZA,   b. 991 BC,   d. 921 BC
     4. SHELOMITH,   b. 990 BC,   d. 920 BC
    Last Modified 29 Jul 2019 
    Family ID F89  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 3 ABIHAIL,   b. 1031 BC,   d. 961 BC 
    Children 
     1. JEUSH,   b. 995 BC,   d. 925 BC
     2. SHEMARIAH,   b. 993 BC,   d. 924 BC
     3. ZAHAM,   b. 992 BC,   d. 923 BC
    Last Modified 29 Jul 2019 
    Family ID F2711  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Photos
    Rehoboam
    Rehoboam

    Fragment of the wall painting in the Great Council Chamber of Basel Town Hall. Holbein began working on the murals for the Council Chamber during the 1520s, painting classical subjects. After his return from a two-year visit to England (1526–28), he was commissioned to resume the task, but this time to provide murals based on Old Testament subjects, in keeping with the new Reformation doctrines of the authorities. These murals were one of several large-scale projects undertaken by Holbein that are now known only from a few fragments and preparatory sketches, including a drawing of Rehoboam from a frontal position. This section is the largest of those that were removed from the wall in the 19th century and preserved. It portrays Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, whose arrogant government led to his people's rebellion and the loss of part of his kingdom. He holds out his little finger, saying, "My little finger is thicker than my father's waist!" The murals reminded the councillors of the need for wise and godly government. References Christian Müller; Stephan Kemperdick; Maryan Ainsworth; et al, Hans Holbein the Younger: The Basel Years, 1515–1532, Munich: Prestel, 2006, ISBN 9783791335803, p. 412. Derek Wilson, Hans Holbein: Portrait of an Unknown Man, London: Pimlico, 2006, ISBN 9781844139187, p. 162.
    The Arrogance of Rehoboam - Hans Holbein the Younger
    The Arrogance of Rehoboam - Hans Holbein the Younger

    Rehoboam's Insolence. Pen and brown ink and brush, grey wash and watercolour, 22.5 × 38.3 cm, Kunstmuseum Basel. Holbein began working on the murals for the Council Chamber of Basel Town Hall during the 1520s, painting classical subjects. After his return from a two-year visit to England (1526–28), he was commissioned to resume the task, but this time to provide murals based on Old Testament subjects, in keeping with the new Reformation doctrines of the authorities. The murals were one of several large-scale projects undertaken by Holbein that are now known only from a few fragments and preparatory sketches. This design portrays Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, whose arrogant government led to his people's rebellion and the loss of part of his kingdom. He holds out his little finger, saying, "My little finger is thicker than my father's waist!" The murals reminded the councillors of the need for wise and godly government. Among the surviving fragments of the murals is one showing Rehoboam, but in profile. References Christian Müller; Stephan Kemperdick; Maryan Ainsworth; et al, Hans Holbein the Younger: The Basel Years, 1515–1532, Munich: Prestel, 2006, ISBN 9783791335803, p. 412 Derek Wilson, Hans Holbein: Portrait of an Unknown Man, London: Pimlico, 2006, ISBN 9781844139187, p. 162.

    Northern & Southern Kingdoms
    Northern & Southern Kingdoms

    The United Kingdom of Solomon breaks up, with Jeroboam ruling over the Northern Kingdom of Israel (in green on the map).